From the ancient city of Mesopotamia to global development
Who discovered beer? Let's face it, it's not the Belgians or the Alsatians. The traces that we have trace it back to Babylon, even to China. But it is probable that the principle of the fermentation of seeds was discovered all over the world, without our having proof of it, for lack of writing. In all civilizations, drunkenness has been "used" for religious and social purposes.
In any case, the earliest recipes we have come from Babylon, where Ninkasi, the Sumerian goddess of beer, was celebrated. Meanwhile, the Chinese were making t'ien tsiou, a green beer that is not fully fermented and low in alcohol, and tsiou, a finished and stronger beer. As for the Greeks and Romans, they associated barley wine with barbarians, since for them, civilized people drank wine!
As we know, it was the European monks who enabled the improvement and diversification of beer production. In the great Mitteleuropa, from France to Austria, they cultivated hops before fermenting it. But they also used gentian, cilantro, wormwood, sage and lavender. Very quickly, the production leaves the monasteries, in particular thanks to the urban concentration. The profession is organized, guilds and corporations govern the production of beer. In 1516, Bavaria enacted the Beer Purity Law, which still applies today.
New manufacturing processes
In terms of manufacturing, it was not until the mid-nineteenth century to witness a radical evolution of techniques, thanks in particular to the development of glassware, filtration devices, pressurized withdrawal, bottling and refrigeration. . At the same time, scientific research on microorganisms will make it possible to better understand and control the process of alcoholic fermentation, to improve the sanitary conditions of breweries and to produce a healthier and clearer drink. To this end, Louis Pasteur's contribution was very important.